White emigration (also Russian white emigration, also Emigration of the first wave) is the name of the wave of emigration due to the events of almost six years of the Civil War (1917-1923).
White emigration, which since 1919 took on a mass character, was formed in the course of several stages. The first stage is connected with the evacuation of the Armed Forces of the South of Russia under the command of the General Staff of Lieutenant-General AI Denikin from Novorossiysk in February 1920. The second stage – with the evacuation of the Russian Army under the command of Lieutenant-General Baron PN Wrangel from the Crimea in November 1920, the third – with the defeat of the troops of Admiral A. V. Kolchak and the evacuation of the Japanese army from Primorye in 1920-1921 years.
The total number of emigrants from Russia on November 1, 1920, according to the calculations of the American Red Cross, was 1,194,000. According to the League of Nations as of August 1921, there were more than 1.4 million refugees from Russia. At the same time, the Doctor of Historical Sciences VM Kabuzan estimates the total number of emigrants from Russia in 1918-1924 of not less than 5 million people, including here and about 2 million inhabitants of the Polish and Baltic provinces that were part of the Russian Empire before the First World War and then joined the newly formed sovereign states and preferred the citizenship of the new states to Russia. The overwhelming majority of emigrants were military men, noblemen, intellectuals, professionals, Cossacks and clergy, civil servants, and members of their families.
In May 1920, General Baron Wrangel established the so-called “Emigration Council”, a year later renamed the Council for the resettlement of Russian refugees. Civil and military refugees were resettled in camps near Constantinople, the Princes Islands and Bulgaria; military camps in Gallipoli, Chatalja and Lemnos (Kuban camp) were under the British or French administration.
The last operations for the evacuation of Wrangel’s army took place from November 11 to November 14, 1920: 15,000 Cossacks, 12,000 officers and 5,000 soldiers of regular units, 10,000 cadets, 7,000 wounded officers, over 30,000 officers and officials of the rear, and up to 60,000 civil servants, mainly members of the families of officers and officials.
At the end of 1920, the card index of the Main Reference (or Registration) Bureau already numbered 190,000 names with addresses. At the same time, the number of military personnel was estimated at 50-60 thousand people, and civilian refugees – at 130-150 thousand people.
After the evacuation of the Crimea, the remnants of the Russian Army were stationed in Turkey, where General PN Wrangel, his staff and senior officers were given the opportunity to restore it as a fighting force. The key task of the command was, first, to get material aid from the Allied allies in the necessary sizes; secondly, to parry all their attempts to disarm and disband the army; and thirdly, disorganized and demoralized by defeats and evacuation, to reorganize and to put in order, restoring discipline and morale.
The legal situation of the Russian Army and military alliances was complex: the legislation of France, Poland and a number of other countries on whose territory they were located did not allow the existence of any foreign organizations “having the form of military-like formations.” The Entente powers sought to transform the Russian army, which retreated, but retained its fighting spirit and organization, into a community of emigrants. “Even more than physical deprivation, we were plagued by complete political lack of rights. Nobody was guaranteed against the arbitrariness of any agent of power of each of the Entente powers. Even the Turks, who themselves were under the regime of the arbitrariness of the occupation authorities, were guided by the right of the strong to us “- wrote NV Savich, the officer responsible for finance Wrangel. That is why Wrangel decides to transfer his troops to the Slavic countries.
In the spring of 1921 PN Wrangel appealed to the Bulgarian and Yugoslav governments with a request for the possibility of resettlement of the personnel of the Russian Army to Yugoslavia. The parts were promised maintenance at the expense of the treasury, which included a ration and a small salary. September 1, 1924 PN Wrangel issued an order on the formation of the “Russian Union General Union” (ROVS). It included all parts, as well as military societies and unions, which took the order to execute. The internal structure of individual military units remained intact. The ROVS itself acted as a unifying and leading organization. The commander-in-chief became its chairman, the general management of the affairs of the ROVS was concentrated in the headquarters of Wrangel. From this moment it is possible to speak about the transformation of the Russian Army into an emigrant organization. The Russian All-Military Union was the legitimate successor of the White Army. This can be said, referring to the opinion of its founders: “The formation of the ROVS prepares the possibility, in case of necessity, under the pressure of the general political situation, to accept the Russian Army a new form of being in the form of military alliances.” This “form of being” made it possible to fulfill the main task of the military command in exile – preserving the available and educating new cadres of the army.
Since 1929 VV Orekhov, EV Tarussky and S. K. Tereshchenko in Paris began to publish the magazine “Sentry” – the organ of communication of Russian soldiers and officers in exile (the magazine was published before 1988).
During the Second World War, from the white emigrants in Yugoslavia was formed the Russian Corps, fighting on the side of Germany, with the communist partisans Tito, and later – with parts of the Soviet Army.
The Cossack units also emigrated to Europe. Russian Cossacks appeared in the Balkans. All the stanitsas, more precisely – only the atamans and the stanitsas, were subordinate to the “United Council of the Don, the Kuban and the Terek” and the “Cossack Union”, which were headed by Bogaevsky.
One of the largest was the Belgrade cossack village named after Peter Krasnov, founded in December 1921 and numbering 200 people. By the end of the 20-ies. its number decreased to 70 – 80 people. For a long time the ataman of the village consisted of the sailor N. S. Sazankin. Soon from the village went the grime, forming their village – Terskaya. The remaining Cossacks joined the ROVS and it received a representation in the “Council of Military Organizations” of the Fourth Division, where the new ataman, General Markov, had the same voting rights as the other members of the council.
In Bulgaria, by the end of the 1920s, there were no more than 10 stanitsas. One of the most numerous was Kaledinskaya in Anhialo (ataman – Colonel MI Karavaev), formed in 1921 in the number of 130 people. In less than ten years, only 20 people remained in it, and 30 left for Soviet Russia. The social life of Cossack villages and hamlets in Bulgaria consisted of helping the needy and disabled, as well as in carrying out military and traditional Cossack festivals.
Burgas Cossack village, formed in 1922 in the number of 200 people by the end of the 20-ies. there were also no more than 20 people, and half of the original members returned home.
During the 30 – 40-ies. Cossack villages ceased to exist in connection with the events of World War II.
European countries that have adopted Russian emigration.
According to incomplete data of the Refugee Service of the League of Nations, in 1926 755,300 Russian refugees were officially registered. More than half of them – about 400 thousand people – were accepted by France; in China there were 76 thousand, in Yugoslavia, Latvia, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, approximately 30-40 thousand people.
Having fulfilled the role of the main transshipment base of emigration, Constantinople lost its importance with time. The recognized centers of emigration were at its next stage Berlin and Harbin (before its occupation by the Japanese in 1936), as well as Belgrade and Sofia. The Russian population of Berlin numbered about 200 thousand people in 1921, it was especially affected during the economic crisis, and by 1925 there were only 30 thousand of them. The coming to power of the German National Socialists further alienated the Russian emigrants from Germany. The first places in emigration were nominated by Prague and, in particular, by Paris. On the eve of World War II, but especially during the hostilities and soon after the war, the trend of moving part of the first emigration to the United States emerged.
Russian emigrants in China.
Before the revolution, the number of the Russian colony in Manchuria was at least 200-220 thousand people, and by November 1920 – no less than 288 thousand people. With the abolition of the status of extraterritoriality for Russian citizens in China on September 23, 1920, the entire Russian population in it, including refugees, transferred to the unenviable position of the undisguised emigrants in a foreign state, that is, the situation of the actual diaspora. Throughout the Civil War in the Far East (1918-1922), there was a significant mechanical movement of the population, which, however, was not only in the influx of the population, but also in its significant outflow – as a result of Kolchak, Semyonov and other mobilization, re-emigration and repatriation in Bolshevik Russia.
The first serious flow of Russian refugees in the Far East dates back to the beginning of 1920 – the time when the Omsk directory had already fallen; the second one – in October-November 1920, when the army of the so-called “Russian Eastern suburb” was defeated under the command of ataman G. M. Semenov (his regular troops alone numbered more than 20 thousand people, they were disarmed and interned in the so-called “tsitsikar camps “, After which they were resettled by the Chinese in Grodekovo district in the south of Primorye); finally, the third, by the end of 1922, when the Soviet power was finally established in the region (only a few thousand people left the sea, the main stream of refugees was sent from Primorye to Manchuria and Korea, to China, with some exceptions, they did not miss the KVZhD, some even expelled to Soviet Russia.
However, in China, namely in Xinjiang in the north-west of the country, there was another significant (more than 5,5 thousand people) Russian colony, consisting of Cossacks General Bakich and former officers of the White Army who retreated after the defeat in the Urals and in Semirechye: they settled in rural areas and engaged in agricultural labor.
The total population of the Russian colonies in Manchuria and China in 1923, when the war was over, was estimated at about 400 thousand people. Of this number, at least 100,000 received Soviet passports in 1922-1923, many of them-no less than 100,000 people-repatriated to the RSFSR (an amnesty to the ordinary members of the White Guard formations, which was announced on November 3, 1921, played its part). Significant (sometimes up to tens of thousands of people per year) were during the 1920s and the re-emigration of Russians to other countries, especially young people who are striving for universities (in particular, in the USA, Australia and South America, and Europe).
In 1931, the Russian Fascist Party was formed in Harbin in the Far East, in Manchuria, where a large Russian colony lived, among Russian emigres. The party was established on May 26, 1931 at the 1st congress of Russian Fascists, held in Harbin. The leader of the Russian Fascist Party was K. V. Rodzaevsky.
During the Japanese occupation of Manchuria, a Bureau of Russian Emigres was formed, headed by Vladimir Kislitsyn.
Political mood of emigrants.
The political moods and preferences of the initial period of Russian emigration represented a rather wide range of trends, which almost completely reproduced the picture of the political life of pre-October Russia.
In the first half of 1921, a characteristic feature was the strengthening of monarchist tendencies, explained primarily by the desire of ordinary refugees to rally around the “leader” who could protect their interests in exile, and in the future to ensure their return to their homeland. Such hopes were associated with the personality of PN Wrangel, and then Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Younger, to whom the gene. Wrangel subordinated the largest organization of the White Abroad – the ROVS.
For example, Yugoslav, Chinese and Argentine emigration was mainly monarchist, and Czechoslovak, French and American mostly shared liberal values.
In the thirties, an organization such as the “National Union of Russian Youth” was created, later renamed the “National Labor Union of the New Generation” (NTSNP). Its aim was to oppose Marxism-Leninism with another idea based on solidarity and patriotism. It included, in the main, the children of emigrants of the first wave.
The value of emigration of the first wave.
In total, owing to the revolution in Russia, about 3,000,000 people got into the country abroad, in two “waves” – in the 1920s and during the Second World War. These days the offspring of these two waves of Russian white emigration is about 10 million people scattered all over the planet. Most of them were assimilated in their countries of birth and residence, but there are tens of thousands of people, already the third and fourth generation, for whom Russia is not just a remote ancestral home of ancestors, but an object of constant living attention, spiritual connection, sympathy and cares.
For 70 years of its existence, without territory, without protection, often without rights, repeatedly losing its material savings, the Russian emigration of the first wave gave the world two Nobel laureates (literature – IA Bunin and economics – VV Leontiev); outstanding artists – Chaliapin, Rachmaninov, Kandinsky, Stravinsky; a pleiad of famous scientists and technologists – Sikorsky, Zvorykin, Ipatyev, Kistyakovsky, Fedorov; a whole epoch in Russian literature; several philosophical and theological schools.
In the cinema.
1970 & mdash; Running, a motion picture based on the works of MA Bulgakov, “Running,” and “White Guards” and & laquo; Black Sea & raquo ;.
In the cinema.
1970 – Running, a film based on the works of M. A. Bulgakov “Running”, “White Guard” and “Black Sea”.
The documentary series “Russian without Russia” by Nikita Mikhalkov about the fate of Russian white emigration: Prologue – the events of November 1920 are described. Dialogues with Kolchak – tells the grandson of Admiral Alexander Kolchak, who now lives in France. Anton Denikin. Romance for the general – tells the daughter of Anton Denikin – Marina Antonovna. General Wrangel. When we leave – tells the daughter of Peter Wrangel – Natalia Petrovna. The death of the Russian squadron – about the brothers Mikhail and Eugenia Behrens. Cossacks: undivided love – about the life of Russian Cossacks in emigration. The Versailles cadets are about the graduates of the Versailles Cadet Corps.
Aleksandrov SA Political History of Foreign Countries (1) Aleksandrov SA Political History of Foreign Countries (2) Aleksandrov SA Political History of Foreign Countries (3) Ablova N. Ye. KVZhD and Russian Emigration in China. – M. Russian panorama, 2004. – 432 p. – ISBN 5-93165-119-5 Andrushkevich IN RUSSIAN WHITE EMIGRATION. (Historical background) Buenos Aires, 2004 “They did not manage to defeat us!” Record of the conversation with the chairman of the Union of Russian White Guards and their descendants in Bulgaria E. Khodkevich // “Bulletin of the ROVS”, 2002. Ivanov IB Russian General Military Union A short historical essay. SPb, 1994. Andrei Korlyakov The Great Russian Exodus. – YMCA-Press, 2009. – 720 p. ISBN 978-2-85065-264-6 Poremsky VD Strategy of anti-Bolshevik emigration. Selected articles of 1934-1997. Moscow “Sowing” Shkarenkov LK Agony of white emigration. – M .: Thought, 1987. Articles on Russian emigration Documents on the white emigration of “Alexandrino”, the school of A. N. Yakhontov in Nice – On the Russian school for children of emigrants from Russia, which existed in Nice in 1920-1930 Anna Smirnova – Marley – about the fate of Anna Yurievna Smirnova – Marly (in girlhood – Betulinskaya) dancer, singer, poet, composer, author of “The Song of the Partisans”, which became the anthem of the French Resistance. Awarded the Order of Merit and two Orders of the Legion of Honor. Ilyina N. “Return” (about emigration in China)
Bulgakov M. “Running” Tolstoy A. “Emigrants”, “The Adventures of Nevzorov, or Ibicus” E. Baryakina “White Shanghai”
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