We are opening a closed Turkmenia.
In terms of living standards, Turkmenistan stands out against the backdrop of the rest of the Central Asian republics. Oil and gas provide the filling of the budget. At the same time, the country seems closed to the outside world. According to reviews, the autocratic regime of the personal power of the president of the republic is established in it. However, the Turkmen society does not look exhausted from the dictatorship. 12.02.2017 the next presidential election was held. International observers did not find any violations. The country continues to develop.
Turkmenistan is a country that has overcome poverty.
According to the US CIA in 2012, Turkmenistan’s population below the poverty line was only 0.2%, while in neighboring Tajikistan it was 35.6%. The difference is two orders of magnitude.
This is not surprising, because Turkmenistan occupies the 4th place in the world in terms of natural gas reserves. In addition, it is rich in oil, sulfur, natural minerals, lead. Revenues from exports made it possible to make many public sector and housing services free of charge, as well as to establish low prices for socially important goods and products. An original variant of Turkmen socialism has turned out.
Turkmenistan itself (officially Turkmenistan) was created within the Soviet Union and separated from it in 1991. It managed to survive the relatively painless years of development and quickly reach the level of providing the people that all neighboring countries today can envy.
A person who has been absent for a while in the country, strikes almost everything in Turkmenistan. So, with a huge speed, the landscape, architecture and infrastructure of the country as a whole and its individual cities are transformed. The fairy-tale speed of building new high-rise buildings, swimming pools, hospitals, motorways, concert halls, tennis courts, business centers, hotels, stadiums, as well as the most beautiful Ashgabat airport from marble and glass is traced.
Video: Turkmenistan is a closed country.
Economy and standard of living.
Despite domestic financial prosperity, the world rating agencies do not put Turkmenistan on high positions or ignore this country, such as Legatum Institute, which includes in its welfare index of 149 countries. One of the reasons is the closedness of Turkmenistan for the work of agencies from abroad. And those, in turn, do not trust official statistics.
In 2016, the US CIA estimated Turkmenistan’s GDP per capita at $ 17,300 and gave it the 96th place in the world.
The rating of economic freedom from the Heritage Foundation (Heritage Foundation), which includes 178 countries, is of interest. In it, Turkmenistan is on the 174th place between Eritrea and Zimbabwe.
Table: Turkmenistan’s indicators in the rating of economic freedoms on a 100-point scale.
Incomes and expenses of ordinary citizens.
The minimum payments to pensioners are determined in the amount of 231 manats. Pensions are regularly indexed. The minimum wage is 500 manats.
As for the earnings and expenditures of the population, the most accurate and complete information is provided on the portal Guper.Ru for the capital of Ashgabat.
The rate of Turkmen manat: 1 TMT = 16,61 RUB = 0,2861 USD = 0,2686 EUR.
Immediately strikes the cheapness of gasoline and travel on transport, the lack of data on the costs of the Internet and high prices for cigarettes.
Table: Average salary and prices in Ashgabat.
Salary in Ashgabat from sellers about 200-250 $, for loaders – 300 $, for drivers – 400-500 $, maybe, 800 $, depends on the firm, of course. Apartment 1 room. can be removed within 400-500 $.
From an interview with a resident of Ashgabat.
Climate, nature and people.
Geographically, Turkmenistan is located in the subtropics and in the interior of the continent. These conditions explain the hot, arid, sharply continental climate. The cold air masses of the Arctic break through into valleys and deserts, bringing frosty weather in the winter from -20 � C to -30 � C. But in summer there is a sizzling heat. Only in the adjoining areas, to the Caspian, the climate softens to sea. Winters there are not so frosty, the summer is cooler, but there are strong winds with stormy weather.
The Karakum Desert occupies most of the country’s territory. This is a sparsely populated region, where you can still meet nomads. The main population is concentrated in the south, southeast and on the Caspian coast.
How ordinary people live in Turkmenistan now.
The way of life in Turkmenistan is determined by Islamic traditions and customs. They are strong both in rural remote places, and in cities. The Turkmen society is patriarchal with veneration of the senior in age and rank. What also applies to leadership at all levels. As the Turkmen themselves joke, the power of the bais was replaced by the power of officials. Feudal vestiges clearly appear in all spheres of public administration.
We probably do not even know how to be afraid of scolding the government, although they themselves lived in such conditions only 20 years ago. In Turkmenistan, nothing has changed in this respect, if only in the opposite direction. If you want to talk with someone about politics, then, most likely, you will hear how everything is fine here and, of course, about what a wonderful president she manages. It should be noted that there is much to be proud of the country – practically everything here is free: gas, water, light, gasoline, salt. Up to such a triumph of communism, even the USSR has not risen. Naturally, there are discontent and dissidents in the country.
Gudreniks Reinis, traveler and blogger from Riga.
The common people are distinguished by cordiality, hospitality and ostentatious naivety, behind which “eastern cunning and pride” is seen.
In Turkmenistan, any tuning is prohibited. When I asked the Turkmen why such prohibitions, he just explained everything: “If the Turkmen does not prohibit tuning, it will weigh the whole car like a Christmas tree. Then he goes at 3 o’clock in the morning, kicks, people get in the way! At one time, even the signal was banned for a month, but there was time, and deprived of the rights for signals! ”
The veneration of the leadership gave rise to the phenomenon of unquestioning obedience to the president, the worship of the personality cult up to deification. This was most evident during the reign of Saparmurat Niyazov (1991-2006). After his sudden death some liberalization took place, but, in essence, under Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, who has ruled since 2007, little has changed.
The entire cultural life is under the strict control of the state. Perhaps, due to the fact that contemporary art and the creative intelligentsia were formed under Soviet power. As in any country, theaters give performances, film and television studios, pop concerts and tours of creative teams from abroad. But the repertoire depends on the Culture Commission under the presidential administration.
The commission is given the right to assess the artistic level of the corresponding creative works and issue permission for their publication, stage production, filming.
Performances of folklore ensembles are very popular in Turkmenistan. Like no other Central Asian republic, Turkmenistan has adopted the wearing of national clothes and the colorful passage of public holidays. Traditions and Islam determine the way of life. Nobody surprises, for example, bride for the bride, because it is so accepted. The groom and his parents consider themselves to be indebted. On the one hand, the custom strengthens the family foundations, on the other it becomes a property obstacle for many men planning to marry.
Population.
The number of people in Turkmenistan has not been counted for a long time. The last census was conducted in 1995, and after 2005 official data are not published. According to UN estimates, at the end of 2006, 5,402 million people lived in Turkmenistan. CIA notes 5.291 million for 2016
Despite the relatively high level of population security, the severity with alcohol consumption, the high cost of tobacco, the life expectancy in Turkmenistan only recently exceeded 70 years, and according to this indicator the country is on the 158th place in the world. For 2016, the data is as follows:
One of the reasons is the departure of Russians, among whom there were many medical workers and teachers. The shortage of specialists affected demography.
Nationalities of Turkmenistan.
The national composition is homogeneous:
Russians in the Turkmen land.
Russia and Turkmenistan have no common border, the arrival of Russians began in the 18th century. through mutual trade. In XIX, Central Asia merged with Russia. Military garrisons, Russian officials, scientists, engineers, doctors, teachers appeared in Turkmenistan. During the years of Soviet power, thousands of workers and specialists of various profiles were sent for state construction.
In 1959, the share of Russians exceeded 17% (263 thousand people), they were the second largest community. Subsequently, against the background of the high birth rate of the local population, the percentage of Russians decreased, although in quantitative terms they became larger. The All-Union population census showed 334 thousand people (9.5%). With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russians were drawn to their homeland. Every year they became less and less. At present, according to independent estimates of Russians, about 211,000 people. If compared with neighboring Tajikistan, in Turkmenistan, the Russians are more comfortable, the outcome was not so catastrophic. Although for the sake of justice it should be noted that there is no Russian representation in the government or in the army.
In Ashgabat, there are practically no problems with the Russian language, because there were more Russians left, there is a Russian school, and there are Turkmen, where they study Russian. For example, I talked with a girl who studies in an economic technical school. Teaching them in Russian, because the teachers are all Russian, and at the age who have stayed and continue to work there. That is, Russian is not officially encouraged, but it is present and widely used as an international language. Foreigners working in Turkmenistan learn Russian restaurant and shop lexicon for communication, and not Turkmen.
Table: the pros and cons of life in Turkmenistan.
Video: Chronicles of Turkmenistan.
Nationality of Turkmenistan.
The Law on Turkmen citizenship was adopted on 30.09.1992 and has since been repeatedly amended. Currently, it is applied in the version of 22.06.2013.
Assignment or deprivation of Turkmen citizenship is the exclusive competence of the President of the Republic, who issues relevant decrees. The Presidential Citizenship Commission conducts all technical work from document verification to the filing of decrees for signature to the president. Documents to the commission come through the state migration service.
The application for citizenship is addressed to the territorial migration service body, and when the applicant is outside Turkmenistan, to the consular department of the diplomatic mission.
To the application attach:
general and foreign passport with copies of the main pages; declaration of withdrawal from previous citizenship; passport-type photo; receipt of duty payment; all documents confirming the applicant’s right to Turkmen citizenship.
The amount of the fee is not established and is determined in each specific case by the actual expenses of state bodies. According to Article 12 of the Citizenship Law, the applicant must:
respect and respect the Constitution and laws of Turkmenistan; know the official language of Turkmenistan within the limits necessary for communication; permanently reside in the territory of Turkmenistan for the last five years; have legitimate sources of existence.
The period from submitting the application to the publication of the presidential decree on conferring citizenship is set at 6 months.
Who can not become a citizen of Turkmenistan.
Article 14 of the Law lists the conditions under which citizenship will be refused to those who:
committed crimes against the peace and security of mankind, war crimes under international law, conducts terrorist activities; advocated for violent change of the fundamentals of the constitutional order of Turkmenistan or created a threat to the security of the state and public health by other actions; fomented interstate, national and religious enmity; submitted false documents or knowingly false information; convicted for a serious and especially grave crime and had an unexpunged or unexpunged conviction for the crime committed; is serving a sentence of imprisonment; is the citizenship of another state.
The treaty on dual citizenship with the Russian Federation.
In 1993, the Russian Federation and Turkmenistan concluded an agreement on mutual recognition of dual citizenship. The Russians in Turkmenistan had the opportunity to obtain Russian passports in order to freely leave the republic if necessary. More than 100,000 people took advantage of the situation.
Since 2003, Turkmenistan has pursued a policy of limiting dual citizenship. The then president, Niyazov, issued a decree requiring all holders of two passports to withdraw from one of them. This news was a complete surprise for the holders of dual citizenship. However, the decree does not operate on the territory of Russia, so it did not earn it fully.
The Turkmen leadership recognizes only one citizenship and one passport.
President Berdimuhamedov conducted a constitutional reform. Adopted in 2008, the new constitution of Turkmenistan does not recognize for its citizens the right to dual citizenship. The relevant prohibition is included in the Law on Citizenship. Violators face administrative or criminal liability.
Attempts to settle the issue between Moscow and Ashgabat at a diplomatic level were unsuccessful. Russia unilaterally recognizes dual citizenship from those who were able to register it before May 18, 2015. After this date, there are no legal ways to obtain Russian and Turkmen citizenship.
Exit from citizenship and confirmation of his absence.
The withdrawal from the citizenship of Turkmenistan takes place on the basis of a written application signed and submitted personally by the applicant. Statements of minors are filed by their legal representatives. As a rule, those who have already left the country refuse citizenship. Therefore, the documents are accepted at the embassies of Turkmenistan abroad.
Term of consideration – 6 months. Then the president signs a decree on withdrawal from citizenship. From that moment it is considered to be invalid. To confirm this, you need to apply with the request to the embassy, there will be issued a certificate of non-citizenship.
The applicant can be refused on the basis of Article 16 of the Law, if:
this is contrary to the interests of national security; the applicant is under trial and is accused of a criminal offense or convicted, but has not yet served his sentence; a person has debts and unfulfilled obligations to individuals, legal entities or the state; this is a special case falling under the laws or by-laws of Turkmenistan.
In addition, citizenship can be lost in the following cases:
filing false documents or false information; Unforeseen by intergovernmental agreements of service in power structures or in authorities of a foreign state; signing of a special treaty with a foreign state.
The legislation of Turkmenistan is built in such a way as to consolidate the population in its citizenship, restricting free exit from the country.
Despite the closed nature of Turkmenistan and the autocratic nature of the ruling regime, it can not be outside the processes of world development. Even under the second president, there is some liberalization and expansion of freedoms, including political ones. The country has adopted a multi-party system. Opposition politicians were nominated for candidates in the recent presidential elections. The regulation of internal life is completely compensated by the increased prosperity, stability and prospects for the development of the country and society.