Transport in Israel.
The length of motor roads is 17,686 km (all with a hard surface), of which 146 km are expressways. [1]
The total length of the gas pipelines is 160 km; of oil pipelines – 442 km. [1]
Public transport.
Transport in Israel does not work in Shabbat (from Friday evening to Saturday evening). The exception is internal flights to Eilat, Haifa and Natrat-Ilite, as well as taxis, which always work.
Bus transport in Israel is very well developed. Bus lines connect almost all settlements, and in all large cities, there are intercity buses. Buses at the moment are the main public mode of transport.
Most of the transportation is provided by the Egged co-operative, which is one of the world’s largest bus companies [1] (2001 – the second in the world after the London Transport [2]).
The largest Israeli bus company Egged in 2001 was the second largest in the world. Founded in 1933 (that is, before the formation of Israel), Egged has in its disposal (for 2007) 3,160 buses, of which 114 are armored. Egged employs 6236 employees, of which 4309 drivers, carrying about a million passengers a day on routes totaling 810 519 km [3]. At the disposal of Egged there are a number of double-decker buses; in 1996 they were used on the highway Jerusalem – Tel Aviv.
The second largest bus company in Israel is Dan, operating in the Gush Dan area (and also on flights from Bnei Brak to Jerusalem). It is to a certain extent a competitor of Egged. The cooperative “Dan” employs about 3000 employees, and the number of passenger traffic is about 20 million per month.
In addition, in recent years, the company “Kavim” has been actively operating, which has received many routes that were previously served by the Dan co-operative.
In addition, several small companies operate in Israel (Connex, Metropolin, etc.). The general policy of the Ministry of Transport in recent years is to deprive Egged and Dana of their monopoly status by issuing part of the routes to other companies. However, on these lines, companies usually become monopolists: very rarely two different bus companies perform the same route.
The cost of a ticket on long-distance lines depends on the distance; The cost of travel on intraurban lines is determined by federal law. All bus companies are obliged to provide discounts to certain categories of the population (pensioners, invalids, etc.), and also to transport servicemen in the form free of charge.
Except for domestic flights in Haifa and Eilat, buses in Israel do not go to Shabbat. This means that the traffic stops on Friday afternoon and resumes on Saturday late at night.
Railways.
The Israeli railways are actively developing in recent years. The total length of railways is 853 km. The track width is 1.435 m. [1]
Operating lines run through densely populated coastal, northern, central and some southern regions of the country. On many routes two-story cars are used.
The ticket is bought not on the train, but from point to point. In this case, you can arbitrarily change from train to train within the paid direction.
The maritime line runs from Ashkelon through Tel Aviv to Nahariya, the southern one from Tel Aviv to Beer Sheva and Dimona, the southeast from Tel Aviv via Lod and Beit Shemesh to Jerusalem. Since October 2004, the north-eastern line has been opened to the International Airport. Ben-Gurion. Since September 2007 the line has been extended to Modijan.
Rail transport is faster than the bus and stricter follows the schedule, because it does not depend on traffic jams, traffic lights and speed limits for cars, and also makes an order of magnitude less stops. In addition, it is more comfortable. The disadvantage of this type of transport is a small number of stops and often their distance from the city center. The cost of travel by train is often higher than the cost of a bus trip. Unlike buses, trains do not reach the northernmost regions of Israel (the Galilee, the Golan Heights) and the southernmost (Eilat).
The advantage of railway transport for the country is its ecological purity. In addition, railway transport unloads motor roads.
Like buses, trains in Israel do not go to Shabbat. Railways provide approximately the same set of discounts as bus companies, and are also free for military personnel.
Ticketing machines are installed both at the entrance and at the exit from the stations, so you can not eject a ticket before leaving the station.
Shuttle bus.
The route taxi (Hebrew – , “monitor shorut”) operates mainly on particularly busy lines and can not perform the whole route of the corresponding bus trip. For example, bus No. 19 in Haifa operates a flight from the Bat-Galim district to the Technion, while the fixed-route taxi No. 19 begins the flight from the Adar district. Shuttle buses run daily, from 6-7 hours of the morning until late at night (the last route taxis can go a few hours after the end of the bus traffic along this route). Shuttle buses go on Saturday, but much less often.
The fare in a fixed-route taxi is lower than on a bus, and is also established by federal law. In addition, the speed of the minibus in the city is higher, and it will be faster to reach the destination on the shuttle bus. However, the cost is set so that the bus tickets for the bus are economically more profitable. Therefore, it makes sense to use minibuses if you need to make up to 10 trips (otherwise it is better to buy a bus pass for 11 trips), or if you are late.
Taxis (Hebrew , “monitor”) operate in all the localities of the country and are used both inside the city and on intercity lines. This is the only mode of transport that operates in most parts of the country on Saturdays and holidays (except for the Yom Kippur post). For maintenance at night (from 21.00 to 5.30), as well as on Saturdays and holidays, a surcharge of 25% is charged. All intra-city taxis are equipped with counters, which must be included at the time of passenger landing. Long-distance tariffs are set according to a special price list, which must be provided to the passenger on demand.
In Israeli taxis it is not customary to tip, but it is considered a good idea to round up the amount of the payment up to an integer number of shekels. In addition, you can agree on a trip for a fixed fee (not according to the meter); usually such a trip is cheaper, but it can cost more than a counter, especially if the passenger does not know exactly what the standard rate for such a trip is. Taxi drivers often agree not to include a counter, although this is against the law.
In Jerusalem, the first high-speed tram system in Israel was built. [3] Infrastructure for Metronit is being laid in Haifa. [4]
Metro: the only line that operates in the country is in the city of Haifa. Underground cable car “Carmelit” (6 stations, the length of about 2 km) connects the Lower Town and Carmel. Some believe that Carmelite is wrong to call the subway line. [5]
Currently, preparatory work is under way for the construction of a metro line between Tel Aviv and Petah Tikva (metro tram). Trains on the first branch will start in 2012. [6]
Trains on the first branch will start in 2012. [7]
Air transportation.
There are 53 airports in the country. Of these, 30 with a hard surface, 23 – with ground runways. [1] 3 airports – in Eilat, Lod and Ovde (Uvde) are international.
International passenger transportation is carried out mainly through the airport. David Ben-Gurion in Lod, and also through the airport of Eilat. A small part of international flights are made through the airport of Haifa. Two small airports near Tel Aviv (Sde Dov) and Jerusalem serve domestic flights (the Jerusalem airport has not been used since 2000). A popular domestic flight is the Tel Aviv-Eilat flight, because the trains do not go on this route, and the bus travels 4-5 hours. This flight is performed primarily by the companies of Israyr and Arkia.
External and domestic flights are carried out by El Al, Arkia, IsraEir and others.
Since September 6, 2007, the first private port in Haifa has been operating in Haifa. [8] The first to arrive was a ship from Brazil loaded with sugar. [9]
The port belongs to the Israeli shipyard company (Mispanot Yisrael), which, after long and difficult negotiations, finally managed to break the resistance of the port trade unions and sign a contract with the Israeli Port Authority. According to him, the port will have the right to unload and store on its territory up to 200,000 tons of cargo per year. [10] According to one of the owners of the company, Shlomo Vogel, the port will serve transport arteries linking Europe and the Mediterranean basin with the Persian Gulf and the Far East. [4]
The shipyard company “Mispanot Israel” was established in Haifa in 1959 for the construction and repair of ships, as well as for the drilling of wells on the sea shelf. In 1995, the company, whose debts amounted to 200 million dollars, was privatized and transferred to the families of Katsav, Shmeltser and Vogel.
Payment of travel.
You can pay for travel as buying a ticket for only one type of transport, and for a single ticket that is valid for all types of public transport throughout the country. Electronic travel tickets “rav-kav” in the near future will become a single means of payment for all types of public transport. [5]
Buying a ticket at two ends or one ticket for two, you thus save 15% (that is, the cost of two trips = the cost of one trip X 2 X 0.85).
Ministry of Transport of Israel (Hebrew) Israel Transport Development Program (Russian) Airports (Hebrew) Airports (English) El Al (Hebrew) (Russian) Office of Seaports and Railways (Hebrew) Israeli Railways (rus .) Bus company “Egged” (Russian) Bus company “Dan” (Russian) Bus company “Kavim” (Hebrew) Bus company “Koneks” (Hebrew) Bus company Metropoline (Hebrew) Directory of the Israeli driver (rus. ) Review of the Israeli transport complex (Russian) Development of the Israeli Railways (Russian)
^ 1,01,11,21,31,4Israel (English). The World Factbook. The CIA (June 19, 2006). Checked 1 July 2008. ^ Facets of the Israeli Economy – Transportation. Checked July 5, 2008. ^ Today, the ceremony of laying the first section of the tramway will take place in Jerusalem. NEWSru-Israel. Checked July 5, 2008. ^ (Hebrew). Checked 5 July 2008. ^ Haifa Carmelit subway (English). Checked July 5, 2008. ^ Finance ^ Leviev will build an underground tram in Tel Aviv (English). Checked July 5, 2008. ^ The first private port opened in Israel. Checked July 5, 2008. ^ NewsRu ^ Israelbest.
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