The end of the theme “The Prayerman’s Prayer”
The end of the theme & laquo; Prayer Prayer & raquo;
Prayer in the bus.
If there are no valid reasons, then make a prayer in the position & quot; sitting & quot; (dangling down the legs) in any form of transport – not allowed. Respectful reasons can be: a) danger to life; b) the risk of loss of property; c) illness, etc. With such significant reasons, the prayer can be performed sitting on the floor, or sitting on the seat (climbing with the feet) and denoting slopes and bows towards Kibla.
If there is a possibility, the travelers agree in advance with the driver about the stops for the time necessary for prayer. If there is no such possibility, then the travelers leave the bus at the appointed time, perform another prayer, and then go on another bus. If it is not possible to agree on bus stops on the way, then, in case of emergency, the Hanafis can combine two prayers, following any one of the three madhhabs of the Sunnis.
Prayer on the ship.
And on the ship it is not allowed to perform the prayer “sitting” without extreme necessity. On the valid reasons for performing the prayer sitting, it was said above. An additional reason here can serve as a strong pitching. But if the ship is anchored offshore at full calm, then the prayer must be executed by all the rules.
When praying on a ship on the road, it is necessary to follow the direction towards Kibla. If the ship turns around during prayer, then this situation must be taken into account.
When praying on the road on any type of transport, you must have a compass. During prayer, the compass is placed near the prayer rug, and, in the event of a change in the course, the worshiper unfolds according to the compass readings. If there is no compass, then the praying may be prompted from the side about the need to turn right or left.
If a passenger of any transport performs prayers on the way without Kibla, then such a prayer will not be valid.
If a passenger of any transport can not perform a standing prayer, he can combine two prayers at the stops, following any one of the 3 madhhabs. But, again, we must remember that it is possible to combine prayers only in case of emergency.
Combining the prayers in the way:
The follower of the madhhab Hanafi Can combine two prayers on the way, following the madhhabs of Maliki or Shafi’a (in case of emergency), but for this he must know the rules of following another madhhab. [1]
That is, to perform midday and afternoon prayers during one of these prayers and also to combine evening and night prayers. [2]
In the case of pilgrimage to Mecca:
A Muslim who has arrived in Mecca with the intention to stay there for 15 days or more will be considered not “Musafir”, but ” Mukimi & quot ;. So, all prayers must be performed as well as at home, without any cutbacks.
If he arrives in Mecca with the intention of staying there less than 15 days, he will have to perform the prayers in a reduced form. Since he is in the position of the Hanafi madhhab in the position & quot; Musafir & quot ;.
If, however, the location in Mecca was not precisely determined by the intention, then, no matter how much it remains there, it will always be in the state of & quot; Musafir & quot; and he will have to cut his prayers. In this position, it can be months and years until it is definitely determined with intention.
If the pilgrim takes the intention to visit Mecca, the valley of Mina and Arafat in a total of 15 days, it will be in the position of & quot; Musafir “, and prayers should be read in abbreviated form.
Travelers in the group:
If travelers travel as part of a group (students, soldiers, work brigades, etc.), then the members of the groups act in accordance with the instructions of their leaders. Until they receive a clear order to remain at the place of arrival for 15 days or more, members of such groups will be in the position of ” Musafir & quot ;. So, they will read the prayers in abbreviated form.
If they do not receive such an order or message, they will remain in the & quot; Musafir “, no matter how many are in this place.
Three kinds of the concept & laquo; Watan & raquo; (& laquo; Homeland & raquo ;, place of permanent residence):
1) Vatan-ul-Asli. 2) Vatan-ul-Ikamati. 3) Vatan-Uso-Sukna.
1) Vatan-ul-Asli & ndash; The place of birth of a person, or the place of marriage. Or it may be a place where he intends to live permanently. Vatan-ul-Asli can change only if a person decides to change his place of permanent residence and moves to live in a new place. For example: the permanent residence of a person was a settlement where he was born and raised. But, here he got married and decided to move to live in the city where his wife (husband) permanently resides. In this case, the original Vatan-ul-Asli of this person will change. And if, this person will come for less than 15 days to the city of his childhood, he will be in the position of Musafir and therefore the 4 rakaat prayers will have to be read in abbreviated form in 2 rak’aats. So did the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Coming from Medina to the city of his childhood and marriage – Mecca, he read prayers in abbreviated form.
A man who has several wives in different cities, when visiting them in turns, will not be considered Musafir. Each of these points will be considered for him a place of permanent residence – Vatan-ul-Asli.
2) Vatan-ul-Ikamati & ndash; According to the Hanafi madhhab, this is a place located at a distance of not less than 103 km 680 m from Vatan-i Asly, where the Muslim comes with the intention of staying for at least 15 days. Being in this place for 15 days or more, prayers can not be reduced. (According to the madhhabs of Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali, this distance is equal to 80 km 640 m).
If a Muslim leaves Vatan-i and Ikamati with the intention of changing his location, then regardless of the distance traveled, the original Vatan-ul-Ikamati will lose its significance.
Vatan-ul-Ikamati will lose its meaning even in the event that a person intends to return home (to Vatan-i Asly).
Vatan-ul-Ikamati will lose his meaning if the Muslim leaves this place with the intention of a three-day journey. If he leaves Vatan-ul-Ikamati with the intention to go a distance less than the agreed three-day path, then upon returning to this place, it will remain for him Watan-ul-Ikamati.
3) Vatan-us-Sukna & ndash; A place located at a distance of not less than 103 km 680 m from the permanent residence where the Muslim comes with the intention to visit less than 15 days. In this place, Mandarin prayers (Fards) in 4 rak’aats are read in abbreviated form – 2 rak’aats.
According to Maliki’s madhhab, the reduction of prayers by musafir is sunnah. It is not allowed (Makruh) to the Musafir to follow the local imam either with compulsory or with additional prayer.
According to the madhhabs of Shafi’i and Hanbali, the musafir is allowed to perform these prayers in 2 and 4 rak’aats. But in 2 rak’aats it is considered preferable. According to Shafi’i’s mazhab, it is permissible for the Musafir to follow the local imam in the performance of both Mandatory (fard) and additional (sunna) prayers.
Used literature: “Tam Ilmihal”, M. S dd k G. I stanbul, -1996.
(From the collection of Fiqh & quot; Muhtasar Ilmihal & quot; Muhammad b. Yusuf al-Kokkozi)
[1] See the special chapter in the collection: & laquo; Features of following the remaining 3-mzkhabs & raquo ;.