Refugees and people who need protection (Protected Persons) can be considered people who are afraid of returning to their country of origin or permanent residence. Submit documents for permanent residence in Canada, as a refugee, you can both from other countries, and already being in Canada.
In 2005, Canada plans to support more than 30,000 refugees.
To be eligible to come to Canada as a refugee, a person should not have any other choice within a reasonable amount of time. The Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration of Canada must be sure that this person does not have the opportunity to return home, to his country of origin or usual residence, or to stay in a country where he has already been granted asylum. First, CIC will try to find another country that can provide asylum. If a person has been selected as a potential refugee, then he will be tested on medical issues, as well as security issues and the existence of a criminal past. People selected as refugees should show that they will eventually be able to independently establish themselves in Canada.
In accordance with the humanitarian tradition and international obligations, Canada provides protection to people who have reasonable fears of persecution, as well as the risk of being subjected to torture, or cruel and unusual treatment or punishment.
The refugee protection system in Canada consists of two main components:
1. The program of humanitarian resettlement of Refugees – for people seeking protection outside Canada.
2. The Refugee Protection Process is for people applying for protection from within the country.
1. The program of humanitarian resettlement of refugees.
Canada has many programs to help refugees from abroad migrate and settle in Canada. These are both government programs and private grants that allow organizations and private groups to help under similar circumstances get support in Canada.
The Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration of Canada identifies three classes of refugees accepted by Canada under this program:
Refugees applying from a foreign country.
(Convention Refugees Abroad Class)
This class includes people who are outside the country of their citizenship or usual place of residence. Refugees in this class have well-founded fears of persecution for reasons:
membership in a particular social group.
Refugees passing through this class are eligible for government aid or may receive private sponsorship.
Refugees applying from the country of temporary asylum.
(Country of Asylum Class)
This class includes people who are outside the country of their citizenship or usual place of residence. Refugees in this class can be considered to be people who are seriously and personally affected:
widespread violations of human rights.
Refugees passing through this class must be sponsored privately or have adequate financial means to support themselves and their families.
Refugees applying from their country of origin.
(Source Country Class)
This class includes people who fall under the definition of the Convention on the Status of Refugees, but they are still in the country of their citizenship or habitual residence. This class also includes people who have been detained or imprisoned and suffer severe restrictions on:
the right to participate in the activities of the trade union.
Refugees passing through this class are eligible for government aid or may receive private sponsorship.
Agreement on the admission of refugees in the territory of Quebec.
Quebec has the right to choose refugees who are going to settle in Quebec. The federal government is responsible for the fact that people selected by Quebec are indeed eligible for refugee status, as well as for the existence of all payments, confirming documents and procedures established before the receipt of the refugee status, prior to obtaining a visa.
2. The Refugee Protection Process is for people applying for protection from within the country.
Canada can support people falling under the definition of the Convention on the Status of Refugees, if they have already found themselves in Canada. In such a case, the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration accepts the application directly at its office in Canada (if it recognizes the applicant as eligible) on the basis of the applicant’s fear of returning home.
There is a list of groups of people who can not apply for refugee status from within:
people who have already been recognized as refugees by another country.
people who have already received protection under the Law on the Protection of Immigration and Refugees.
people who came to Canada, directly or indirectly, from a country (other than the country of origin or habitual residence) that signed the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.
people on whom it was found that their stay in Canada is unacceptable for reasons of security, previous violations of their human rights, the existence of a serious criminal past or involvement in organized crime.
people who have already applied for refugee status from within Canada, but whose application was found not suitable for this program.
people whose previous application was withdrawn or rejected.
Financial Aid and Loans to Refugees.
The Canadian government has several programs that help refugees to resettle and settle in Canada.
1. The Resettlement Support Program.
This assistance is provided according to the Convention on the Status of Refugees and members of the Humanitarian Organization of People in need of Protection who are admitted by the Government of Canada to work with refugees. This program provides:
a meeting of refugees at the airport or port.
Provision of a temporary arrangement, if necessary.
help in finding a permanent device.
the basic means of the household.
ensuring that the refugee will always be able to access assistance if necessary.
2. The Program of Loans to Immigrants.
This program is sponsored by the Federal Government. Loans are given according to the applicant’s needs and his ability to repay the funds received.
medical examination abroad.
registration of documents necessary for moving.
payment of the fee for obtaining the right to permanent residence.
3. Temporary Federal Health Program.
This program guarantees urgent and substantial medical care for needy applicants for refugee status and those refugees in Canada who are not yet part of the health care system in their province.
4. United Sponsorship.
Special support programs for refugees also exist in cooperation with the Federal Government and voluntary groups (non-governmental organizations) that provide long-term support to specific refugee groups and their families, for example, under the “Women in Dangers” program.
Under this program, the government provides financial, and private sponsors – moral and emotional support. Joint sponsorship can last up to two (in exceptional cases, up to three) years.
Groups that can get support for this program are:
victims of trauma or torture.
people who have been in refugee camps for a long period.
people in need of support for medical reasons.
5. Private Sponsorship.
Sponsors of refugees can be citizens of Canada or its permanent residents aged 18 and over. The sponsor may be a private person, a group of persons (from 5 people) or an organization that undertakes to support a refugee for up to 1 year from the date of arrival of the refugee in Canada. This support can be expressed in helping and settling on the spot, providing clothing and food. In some cases, the sponsorship period can be extended to 36 months.
There are various types of private sponsorship.
To become a refugee sponsor, you must apply to the local immigration committee. If you yourself have not chosen or named the refugee you would like to sponsor – the Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration of Canada can offer you a candidate.
Refugees in Canada can be considered to be those and only those who were persecuted in their country for one of five reasons: racial, religious, ethnic, political, belonging to the social minority. To be accepted as a refugee, you need to convincingly prove that you and your family fall into one of these definitions. In other words, if you are being pursued by the mafia, or if you think that you are being prosecuted on a national basis, or you do not want to serve in the army, or are being persecuted for homosexual reasons – all this is not a basis for obtaining refugee status in Canada, they did not prove that it is officially forbidden in your state or you are officially persecuted on this grounds.
Do not trust the promises of unscrupulous individuals and organizations for a certain amount of time to quickly help you get your refugee status. Getting this status is a long process, primarily related to long communication in courts and official instances.