MALAYSIA (Malaysia), the state in South-East. Asia; consists of the following parts divided by the South China m: Western M (Malaya) – on the peninsula of Malacca and eastern M. (Sarawak and Sabah) – in S. and S.-Z. about. Kalimantan. Pl. 332.8 t. Km 2. Us. 14.4 million hours (1984). The capital is Kuala Lumpur (over 1 million m., 1982). M. was founded in 1963 from the former. Brit. Possessions that gained independence in 1946-57. Included in the Commonwealth.
Terr. sovr. M. was inhabited since the early Paleolithic. The most ancient of us. – Negro-Australoid tribes. From the second millennium BC. e. from the Terr. Indonesia began penetrating the ancestors of modern times. the Malays. Mass immigration with the end. 19th century. to Ser. 20 cent. from China, India, Indonesia, the countries of Europe contributed to the formation of a complex ethnicity. composition of us. In 1980, the Malays were 54%, the Chinese 35%, the Indians 10%, and other nationalities 1%. There is a sharp difference between nat. groups in the place of residence and spheres of activity. The Malaysians are the most. villages. residents and busy in with. x-ve, as well as in the state. apparatus. The Chinese live mostly in cities and are engaged in industry and commerce. Officer. yaz. – Malay. Gos. religion is Islam.
The first census of us. on the part of the terra. It was carried out in 1891 (then the census zone was constantly expanding), 10 censuses took place, the last – in 1980 (13,136 million h.). Census columns. period were incomplete, suffered incompatibility, fuzziness, etc. In the 1970 census, we are underestimated. Zap. M. was 4%. The current account of demographic is in progress. events, to-ryj differs incompleteness: in Zap. M. accounts for 95-97% of births and deaths, in East. M. – approx. 50%.
With the end. 19 to the middle. 20 centuries. number. us. increased by 3.5 times (intensive immigration). 83,3% of all us. concentrated in the West. M., where the number. us. increased from 2.4 million people. in 1911 to 10.9 million in 1980. Wed-year. the total increase of us. in 1975-80 it was 2.3%.
In the age structure of us. in 1980 the share of individuals 0-14 years old was 40%, 15-64 years old – 56.4%, 65 years old and older – 3.6%. Sexual structure of us. For a long time she experienced the influence of external migration. In 1931, there were 1,420 men per 1,000 women, Malaysians lacked a disproportion, the Chinese had this figure of 2,060, and the Indians had 1940. The reduction in immigration leveled the overall sex ratio. The share of women is 49.5% (1980) (see the figure).
The birth rate (o / oo) decreased: in 1956 – 46.7, in 1979 – 30.5. Women 15-19 years old special. coefficient. The birth rate decreased more than twice, 20-24 years – by 1/3. Mortality (o / oo): in 1947 – 19.4, in 1979 – 5.8; Infant. Mortality: in 1957 – 75, in 1979 – 27. Natural. the increase (o / oo): in 1961-33, in 1979 – 24.7. Nuptiality decreases, increases cf. age of marriage – for malachs from 16.6 years in 1947 to 21.4 years in 1970, the Malayans respectively. from 22.9 to 25.2 years. Cf. life expectancy is 65 years (1984).
Age-sex pyramid of the population of Malaysia. 1978.
Cf. population density – 43 people. at 1 km 2 (1984). In the West. M., where 83-85% of all of us are concentrated. country – St. 85 people. on 1 km 2, in East. M. – approx. 13 people. on 1 km 2 (1982), the center. R-people are rarely populated. Hor. us. concentrated mainly in the zap. the coastal part of Malacca Peninsula (31% in 1980). The most important cities, except the capital: Penang, Ipoh, Johor Bahru, Klang, Malacca.
Inside. migration is growing and is associated with intensive development of land in the Center, and Vost. parts of Malacca Peninsula, as well as with the rapid development of industry. Outward. migration is insignificant and tightly controlled by the company. The emigration of the workforce is encouraged, immigration of unqualified persons is prohibited. workers.
Economically active us. – 5,380 tons (1980). Officially registered. unemployed – 80 tons (mid-1982). It is estimated that actual. unemployment and underemployment are significantly higher and tend to increase.
Illiterates – 40% of adults. (1980). Free early. education (6-11 years old, 90% of children of this age are enrolled). On Wednesday. uch. establishments – ca. 50% of children 12-18 years old (early 1980s). 5 un-tov and several in-tov. At 10 tons. in 1981 there was an average of approx. 55 students.
Honey. help is provided in the state. and private lech. institutions. In 1975, the number of hospital beds per 1000 people. was from 2.2 to 3.7 in decomp. states, 1 doctor accounted for 3400 people. (1980).
Social security is extended to enterprises with 5 or more jobs. The insurance premiums of the working people make up 9.5% of the salary. Old-age pensions are envisaged in the form of lump-sum payments, disability, survivors’ benefits, unemployment benefits due to injuries or prof. disease.
Demographic. policy (since 1966) is aimed at reducing fertility, ordering int. migrations. Both tasks concern first of all villages, the Malay itself, us., Demographic. the behavior of which is strongly influenced by Islam. The greatest success of the birth control policy was in the Chinese community, whose representatives live mainly in cities, have higher incomes and higher education levels.
Studies of the problems of people. conducted by the Department of Censuses and Demography (since 1948), Nat. a family planning bureau (founded in 1966, publishes a monthly bulletin “Bulletin Keluarga”), the Family Planning Federation of M. (founded in 1958). The course of demography is read at the University of Economics and Management of the University of Malaya.
According to the UN forecast (1980, compare version), the number. by the year 2000 – 21.3 million h.
Khrenov, Yu. F., Economic Development of Malaysia, M., 1975; Fernandez D. Z., Hawley A.N., Predaza S., The Population of Malaysia. 1975 (1974 World Population Year, CICRED Ser.).
Demographic encyclopedic dictionary. – Moscow: Soviet Encyclopedia. Editor-in-chief D.I. Valente. 1985.