French Guiana.
Guyane Francaise) is the largest overseas region and at the same time the overseas department (departement d’outre-mer, or DOM) of France, located in the northeast of South America. The administrative center is the city of Cayenne. It borders on the west with Surinam, in the south and east with Brazil, in the north and northeast it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean.
The official name is simply Guiana (French Guyane), the specification “French” dates back to the time when there were three colonies called Guiana: the British (now Guyana), the Netherlands (now Suriname) and the French .
Guiana was discovered by the Spaniards in 1499, but did not attract their interest. In 1604, the first French colonists settled in Guiana. In the XVII-XVIII centuries, this territory was repeatedly tried to take possession of the Dutch and the British. Finally, the power of France over Guiana was established in 1817.
Since the end of the XVII century, the French are developing a plantation in Guiana. Since the Indians refused to work on plantations, the French began to import Negro slaves from Africa.
The middle of the XIX century was marked for French Guiana by three important events: the abolition of slavery (in 1848), the transformation of the territory into a place of exile (since 1852), the discovery of gold deposits (in 1855).
The abolition of slavery led to an acute shortage of labor in the plantation economy, which forced the French authorities to resort to a policy of encouraging immigration. In the second half of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the population of the colony increased mainly due to the immigration of Creoles from the French Antilles and the Indians and Chinese recruited to work on the plantations.
The discovery of gold deposits in French Guiana attracted thousands of people there. At the height of the “gold rush” in the jungles of French Guiana, up to 40,000 prospectors worked, most of them died of diseases, snakes, wild animals and other difficulties.
Under a government decree, since 1852 French Guiana has become the place of exile of “undesirable political elements”. The first exiles were the participants of the French Revolution of 1848. In total, from 1852 to 1939, about 70,000 people were exiled. After World War II, French Guiana ceased to be a place of exile.
Simultaneously with the gold rush, territorial disputes broke out between France and the Netherlands (the Franco-Netherlands territorial dispute in Guiana) and Brazil (the Franco-Brazilian territorial dispute). For some time in the disputed territories, in an atmosphere of anarchy and anarchy, there was also a self-proclaimed republic of Kunan.
In the years 1930-1946. the internal regions of Guiana were allotted to a separate colony – Inini.
Since March 19, 1946 French Guiana has become the overseas department of France.
In 1964, Guyana, thanks to its proximity to the equator, was chosen by France as the place of construction of the space launch complex (see the Kourou cosmodrome). For his protection there is the 3rd Infantry Regiment of the Foreign Legion.
Geography of French Guiana.
The coast of Guiana – low and marshy, stretches a strip about 20 km wide along the entire coast of the Atlantic Ocean, occupying about 6% of the territory. The rest of Guiana is a wooded plateau, with heights reaching 850 m.
The climate is subequatorial, with almost constant temperatures, from 25 to 28 degrees. The amount of precipitation is 2500-4000? Mm per year.
Natural resources and economy.
Stocks of gold, bauxite, oil, niobium, tantalum. Only bauxites are produced, as well as in small quantities – tantalum and gold (by individual prospectors). In addition, Guiana has poorly investigated deposits of copper, silver, platinum, manganese, diamonds, uranium.
An important economic role in the country is played by the activities of the French National Center for Space Studies, located on the Atlantic coast, in the Kourou region. Electricity production averages 450 million kilowatt-hours. h. (2000).
More than 90% of the territory is covered with forest (including valuable species – red, pink, teak, nutmeg, mora, etc.).
Cultivated sugar cane, almost all going to the production of rum. In addition, bananas, citrus fruits, cassava, rice are cultivated. Livestock is poorly developed.
Fishing for shrimp off the coast.
The main export goods are gold, timber, rum, shrimp.
Political structure.
The French president appoints a prefect who manages the department.
At the local level of government, the General Council (19 members) and the Regional Council (34 members), elected by the population of French Guiana.
The main political parties: the Guianese Socialist Party (PCG), founded in 1956, the leader – M. Verdan; The Guiana Democratic Forces (FDG), founded in 1989, the leader of the. Guiana Democratic Action (ADG), Leader – A. Lecante; Association for the Support of the Republic (RPR), local branches; Union of French political parties for French democracy (UDF).
Being part of France, Guyana is the largest part of the European Union, located not on an island outside Europe.
Administrative division.
French Guiana is divided into 22 communes.
The rapid growth of the population – in 20 years in 2 times (2010 � 230 thousand) is explained by significant immigration, mainly from Brazil and Haiti. Fertility is 21.7 people. per 1000. Population, mortality 4.8, infant mortality 13.2. on 1000 newborns (2002). The average life expectancy is 76.5 years, including women 80, men 73 (2002). Age structure: 0-14 years old – 30.2%, 15-64 years old – 64.2%, 65 years of age and older – 5.6% . Men are 96.5 thousand people, women – 85.8 thousand people. Migration of the population 8,8% (2002). The literate population is over 15 years old – 83%. Ethnic composition of the population: up to 70% – Negroes and mulattoes (Creoles, settlers from Haiti), 12% – Europeans (mostly French, as well as Portuguese), 3 – 160 ;% Indians, 15% – Brazilians and descendants of descendants from various Asian countries (China, India, Laos, Vietnam and Lebanon). The official religion is Catholicism, only a small part of the population professes Hinduism and Voodoo.
The population is concentrated in a narrow coastal strip; the inner regions are almost deserted.
French Guiana in the directory links Open Directory Project (dmoz). French Guiana Union (rocket) French Guiana.
1 Associate member.
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See what “French Guiana” in other dictionaries:
French Guiana – Guiana, French territory of afar and issa, French coast of Somalia. Geographical names of the world: Toponymic dictionary. M: AST. Pospelov E.M. 2001 … Geographical encyclopedia.
French Guiana – noun., number of synonyms: 3 � guiana (2) � country (281) � surinam (2) Dictionary of synonyms ASIS … Dictionary of synonyms.
French Guiana – (French Guiana), possession of France on the Caribbean coast of South. America. First French. settlement on. Cayenne was founded in the beginning. 17th c. F.G. was a terr. acute competition with the British, the Dutch and the Portuguese until 1817, when & # 8230; � The World History.
French Guiana – Guiana, the French territory of Afar and Issa, the French coast of Somalia … The toponymic dictionary.
French Guiana – see Guiana French … Encyclopedic Dictionary Brockhaus and I.A. Efron.
FRENCH GUIANA – (Guyane Francaise) b. French colony for sowing. east. coast of South. America. Since 1946 the French overseas department. The first own brands. in 1886, until 1892 it was used. marks of universal issues. with an overprint name. colony and a new face value … A great philatelic dictionary.
French Guiana (French Guiana, French Guyane Francaise) French GuianaGuyane Francaise, the overseas department of France, is in South America, to S. from Brazil and to B. from Suriname; pl. 90976, 94700 people. (1990, evaluation); official. & # 150; French; & # 8230; � Countries of the world. Dictionary.
XIII.9.3. French Guiana – XIII.9. Guiana Vost. Guiana. Adm. c. Cayenne. 1604 1946 French colony. Since 19.03.1946 the French overseas department headed by the prefect … Rulers of the World.
Guyana – French Guiana, possession of France (overseas department) in S.V. Yu. America. In the past, Guyana is the common name for the three adjacent territories, possessions of Great Britain, the Netherlands and France on S. Yu. America. After the formation of the state in Guyana in # 8230; … Geographical encyclopedia.
Guyana (French) – French Guiana (Guyane Fran & cise, aise), a country in S.V. South America. Possession of France; from 1946 the “overseas department” of France. It borders on Z. with Surinam, in the south and west with Brazil, on the S. and S.V. is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. Area 91 … The Great Soviet Encyclopedia.
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