France’s immigration problem
S.V. Proshchenko, a 5th year student of the IESEN NGPU.
Scientific adviser – Ph.D., Associate Professor,
professor of the cafe. economic geography and regional studies Ponomareva.
Under the conditions of globalization, there is a rapid movement not only of capitals, but also of people. Unprecedented flows of migrants from countries with underdeveloped or crisis economy in search of a better life are heading for the prosperous states of the “golden billion”. Not surprisingly, migration has become an urgent problem. Migration flows have reached such an intensity that the changes associated with them can be characterized as the most real problem.
Especially relevant and resonant sounding immigration acquired after the events that occurred in France recently.
Migration has now become an important factor in modern life. It has a significant impact on the economic, political, social life of France, where immigrants or their descendants constitute a significant part of the population. Now in this country more than a third of all French have immigrant ancestors, that is, those who once came to the country to settle there for good. This gives the right to say that the problem of immigration, one way or another, affects the history of many French families.
Many demographers point out that in France there was an “exclusive” demographic situation. The population is growing slowly, unemployment is increasing, the indicators of which are among the highest in developed countries. But the main problem of the population of the state is the aging of the population (the so-called “aging of the nation”), whose rates are constantly increasing. Thus, for France, with its demographic situation and the problems emanating from it, human resources are needed for the normal replenishment of the country’s population [1].
In addition, labor market needs can not be fully met by the national labor force. First, the indigenous population is not enough, in some sectors of the economy, the lack of specialists remains a serious problem. Secondly, in the indigenous population of France, a large percentage of the elderly, it is clear that the socio-economic development of the state is becoming less dynamic, more conservative, including in the scientific and technical field.
This “exceptional” demographic situation in France calls for the attraction of foreign labor.
France began to attract immigrants for a long time. During the history of immigration, the state of the flow changed, and the number of immigrants, but there was only one constant – the need to attract. Especially large immigrant recruitment began after the First World War, since France suffered huge human losses during the First World War (about 1.4 million people). In the interwar period, the population of most of the less developed states of Europe came to France at that time – Italy, Poland, Spain, etc. After the Second World War, the main flows shifted to immigration from the former colonies to the metropolis, ie, to France.
The aggravation of socio-economic problems and the current demographic situation make it necessary to attract immigrants to France.
It should be noted that the main flows of immigration are directed from the former colonies of France (Algeria, Marroco), and in recent years, migration from Asia has increased [2].
Immigration affects all spheres of life. And generates a lot of problems.
In France, the biggest problems of immigration are:
� Social problems – rising unemployment, as well as poverty. In recent years, the state has a special situation, when the population of the country is growing and unemployment is increasing instead of decreasing. This is due to the fact that large social unemployment benefits have been introduced in France and many immigrants, receiving them, lose their economic interest in finding jobs [4];
� Economic problems are mainly due to the fact that in recent years, increased family immigration, which increases the number of dependents who live on social benefits. At the same time, family immigration promotes the growth of low-skilled personnel;
� Political problems of immigration have become pronounced in recent decades. In France, with the increase in immigration, the level of crime, terrorism increases. Now the state has intensified interethnic relations. Increasing ethnic diversity leads to social breakdowns. The problems of xenophobia and racism are immigration satellites. In France, the notion of “Arabophobia” appeared, since a large number of Arabs come to the territory of the state, which bear their traditions and customs. The former population is difficult to integrate into French society, because they do not want to adopt laws and norms of the state. They form enclaves of cohabitation in which their rules of residence apply [5].
To solve all these problems is necessary through a purposeful policy of the state.
France’s policy on immigration has changed many times.
The first large flows of immigration flooded after the First World War. Until 1931 the policy of mass reception of immigrants was carried out. In 1931, France’s new president was elected (Paul DUMER). He toughens France’s immigration policy. And until the end of World War II, this policy was maintained. After the Second World War and until 1974, France pursued a “hospitable” policy of admitting immigrants (the concepts of citizenship and nationality became identical, and issues of social, religious and ethnic status were considered discriminatory), but the 1974 economic crisis forced a review of the state’s immigration policy of foreign work force. The state switched to a limited immigration policy. Since then, the flow of immigration has declined much, which was observed before 1997.
In 1997, the new government in France slightly “opened” the door for immigration, but mainly for highly skilled personnel, as well as for family reunification. [3]
Prior to the recent elections in France, Nicolas Sarkozy’s policy of selective or “selective” immigration was applied to restrict the entry of low-skilled personnel and toughen the process of family reunification. In 2012 there was a new change of government. Most likely, one can expect a softening of French policy in the field of immigration of foreign labor.
In general, the policy on immigration of foreign labor can not completely solve the problems associated with immigration of the population. But there is a gradual settlement of these problems depending on the social and economic interests of the development of France.
1. Kostyunina, GM World Economy and International Economic Relations / G.M. Kostyunina, N.N. Levintsev. – M .: Master, 2008.
2. Streltsova, Ya R. R. Immigrants in France and in Russia: the general and the difference / Ya.R. Streltsova // World Economy and International Relations. – 2008. – No. 7. – P. 40-49.
3. Tandonne, M. Immigration policy in France and the problem of illegal migration / M. Tandonne, G. Vitkovskaya. – Moscow: International Relations, 2002.
4. Tsapenko, I. Migration Management: The Experience of Developed Countries / I.P. Tsapenko. – Moscow: Academy, 2009.
5. France Prioux, Magali Mazuy, Magali Barbieri. L ‘& e; volution d & e; mographique r & eacute; cente en France: les adultes vivent moins souvent en couple. P .: 2009.