8.Print of the Russian emigrants of the first wave of Russian emigration. The main publications. Problems.
1 wave of Russian emigration – 30th goals of the 20th century. In the emigration fell to 3 million people. Most of them had higher or secondary education. They were financiers, politicians.
They traveled to France (Paris), Germany (Berlin), Czechoslovakia (Prague), China (Harbin). There were about 25 states in which the Russians left. Since there were too many emigrants, it was difficult to find a job. They were hosted by tutors, waiters, etc …
The hardest part was writers and publicists. You can learn to speak another language, but you can not think. All the charm of the language was lost. One of the few who could freely write in English was Nabokov.
The emigrants united and lived in the colonies. They published their own newspapers.
The first center of emigration is Berlin. Germany was the center of literary emigration. There were published about 180 publishing houses, which published books and newspapers in Russian. At first Germany and Russia were in friendly relations. Soviet writers traveled to Berlin. But in the 1920s the border was closed. Publishers began to go broke.
By the year 23 began the development of the Russians by Paris. It was the center of political emigration. “Contemporary Notes” is the largest long-lived journal of Russian emigration of this period. The magazine was published in 20-40 years. It was a thick socio-political and literary magazine. In total, 70 numbers were published. There was no regular periodicity. Irregularity of publications was compensated by the volume – 500-600 pages. It published philosophical and historical works, economic and political articles.
It was from the pages of “Modern Notes” that her masterpieces such as “Mitya Lubov” and “Arsenyev’s Life” by I. Bunin, A. Tolstoy’s “Walking by the Flours”, M. Osorgin’s “Sivtsev Vrazhek”, “Soldiers” And Shmelev, numerous works of M. Aldanov, B. Zaitsev, A. Kuprin, A. Remizov, V. Syrin (Nabokov), as well as poems by K. Balmont, Z. Gippius, G. Ivanov, F. Sologub, V. Khodasevich, M. Tsvetaeva. Noteworthy and journalism journalism: the authors of articles and essays were E. Kuskova (“Homeless Russia”, 1929, No. 40), P. Milyukov (“Stalin”, 1935, No. 59), V. Rudnev (“Questions of collectivization”, 1931, No. 47), M. Zoshchenko (“The Story of a Speculator”, 1934, No. 55).
“The Will of Russia” was published from 21 to 31 years. The authors believed in the white movement, believed that the overthrow of power is an illusion. Much attention was paid to issues of socio-political life. Emigrant literature was considered a branch of the metropolitan literature. The editorial board argued with those who criticize the metropolis.
The most popular publication was still the newspaper “The latest news” P.N. Milyukov. The pages of the newspaper were decorated with stories and essays by IA. Bunin, A.N. Tolstoy, feuilletons N.A. Teffi. “I just do not know how we will exist without reading you on Sundays,” wrote the amphitheaters in 1937. Miliukov led a liberal policy. Believed that Bolshevism can be dropped only after a long time. For this he was criticized. Also the magazine “Numbers” came out, which united the youth.
Pavel Struve founded the newspaper Vozrozhdenie. It existed from 25 to 42 years. They welcomed Hitler’s coming to power. The authority of the publication fell.
The newspaper “Rul” was published in Berlin. At the head was Joseph Hesse. It existed from 20 to 31 years. Hesse believed that it was necessary to show facts about the Soviet Union in their unattractive reality.
Prague was the center of scientific emigration. Scientists released here the magazine “Russian Life”.
Harbin was originally a Russian city. Here, the remnants of the white army began to flow. Here came the newspaper “Guangbao”, the magazine “Rubezh”, the newspaper “Zarya”.
Structural reorganization of the media system during the Great Patriotic War. Genre-themed features of journalism.
The war immediately changed the whole face of the Soviet press: the number of even the central newspapers was reduced by half, before the war there were 39, and there were only 18 left. Many central branch newspapers ceased to appear. The number of local publications has significantly decreased. In the Moscow region, 57 large-circulation newspapers with a total circulation of about 60,000 copies ceased to appear. The volume of publications decreased. The measures taken to restructure the press were, of course, forced: they made it possible to overcome to a great extent the difficulties in organizing printed propaganda at the front. A huge number of newspapers and leaflets were issued in the rear of the enemy. In the years 1943-1944. The number of republican, regional, city, inter-district newspapers and newspapers of individual partisan detachments reached three hundred names. Of the underground publications published in the occupied territory, newspapers “For Soviet Ukraine” were most famous, 15 million copies of which were distributed in the first year of the war. In addition to the “Red Star” and the “Red Fleet”, two more central military newspapers appeared: from August 1941 began to be published “Stalin Falcon”, from October 1942 – “Red Falcon”. Significant changes have occurred in the journal periodicals. The magazines “Slavs”, “War and the working class”, literary and art magazine “Front illustration” were created. Of particular importance were the journals for individual branches of the armed forces: the Artillery Journal, the Journal of the Armored Forces, the Red Army Communication, and the Military Engineering Journal. In connection with the need for more rapid transmission of events at the front and in the rear, on June 24, 1941, the Soviet Information Bureau was established. The Sovinformbureau was tasked with prompt and truthful information not only for Soviet people, but also for foreign countries. On June 25, the Soviet press published the first report of the Sovinformbureau, and more than 2,500 of them were handed over during the war years. During the war years, the most operative means of information – radio broadcasting, whose first military broadcasts appeared simultaneously with the government report on the treacherous attack on the Soviet Union of fascist Germany – was particularly indispensable. Invariably, beginning with the very first radio broadcasts on the events at the front, they ended with appeals: “The enemy will be defeated, the victory will be ours!”. At the final stage of the war, Soviet journalism replenished with one more kind of press: newspapers were created for the population of the countries liberated from the fascist invaders, as already indicated by the titles of these publications – Free Poland, Hungarian Newspaper. There were also “New Voice” in Romanian, “Daily Review” in German, “New Life” in Polish.
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